Ethics of Generosity - Photoshop
- 1 File Management:
- 2 Interface:
- 3 Digital Image Essentials
- 4 Workflow Essentials
- 4.1 Document Size:
- 4.2 Multiple Undo and the History panel:
- 4.3 Cropping, Straightening, and Adjusting Canvas Size:
- 4.4 Increasing Canvas Size
- 4.5 Solid Backgrounds:
- 4.6 Brush Options:
- 5 Making Selections:
- 6 Convert a selection into a new layer:
- 7 Adjustment Layers:
- 8 Touchups:
- 9 Text:
Open > Navigate to your specific files
New allows you to select presets, templates, and predetermine parameters for your projects
Store all of your Assets within a Project folder along with the Photoshop project file
It can be helpful to save your unprocessed files in one folder and processed files in another to keep your original content intact
- Most likely you want to be in the Essentials or Photography workspace, which can be selected by the workspace picker at the upper right of the application
- Menu items on the top grouped by topics
- Tools to the left, when you click on the tools you can see that options for those tools in the options bar
- Status info of our document at the bottom of the window- if you click on this you will see Width, Height, Channel, and Resolution
Working with a document:
File > Open > Select your file
View menu > Zoom in, out, view at 100%
Zoom in: cmd +
Zoom out: cmd –
View at 100%: cmd 0
There are also Zoom tools at the top of the program, magnifying glass icons
Window menu > Navigator
You can zoom in and out using the slider and can reposition the rectangle to select different areas of the document
Select the hand tool in the tool bar or use the H key or the spacebar
- This allows you to pan over the image without being limited to left and right, up and down
- The image continues to move after you release the cursor due to flick panning
- To disable flick panning: Photoshop menu > Preferences > Tools > Uncheck flick panning
Select F to toggle through these screen modes to decide what sort of screen real estate you want to use
The third mode is great for presentation
Tab will make the tools bar and panels reappear
To see what panels are displayed look around Window and see that panels have a check mark next to them
You can reorder, resize, regroup, and move panels to streamline your work
Double-click to minimize a panel
- Any tool you hover over will tell you the tool and the keyboard shortcut
- The tools have other tools nested within
- The keyboard shortcuts will select the nested tool you have selected
Move tool: V
Marque tool: M
Hand tool: H or Spacebar
Crop tool: C
Brush tool: B
Healing Brush tool: J
Clone Stamp tool: S
Type tool: T
Digital Image Essentials
Camera File Formats:
- JPEG is the most widely used file format in photography. JPEG file format throws away information through a process called lossy compression
- RAW file formats contain all of the data that the camera format captured. RAW files still apply compression to files, but the quality of the image is not compromised.
- DNG format, digital negative format, is another RAW file format created by Adobe.
Working or Master File Formats:
- PSD: Saves all Photoshop options, including layers, type, shapes, adjustment layers etc.
- TIFF: Also saves all of these options (both Lossless compression)
- To reduce file size, output file formats often flatten and compress images, making it easier to upload or transfer files more quickly.
- For print, you will want a file with more information so keep files as a PSD or a TIFF
- Make sure that you have saved a version of your project that is not flattened if you think you will need to make further changes to a layer in the future.
- Make sure that all the layers you want to keep are visible.
- Choose Layer > Flatten Image, or choose Flatten Image from the Layers panel menu
Image menu > Image Size
- Turn off Resample if you don’t want to add or subtract pixels when you resize.
- Automatic Resample will use the best form of resizing for the changes
- 300 pixels per inch is the needed resolution for print
Multiple Undo and the History panel:
Cmd + Z is Undo, if you need to step back farther than one move, use the history panel
By default, the history panel will keep tract of 50 actions
Cropping, Straightening, and Adjusting Canvas Size:
C is the keyboard shortcut, or use the tool bar
- Crop marque activates around the document
- You can drag a new crop marque with the cursor
- Use the handles to change the crop area
- You can set aspect ratio at the top of the panel
- If you want to delete the crop pixels outside of the marquee tool check Delete Cropped Pixels
- The large checkmark icon crops the image
- If you don’t select Delete Cropped Pixels, after the crop you can use the Move tool and see that Photoshop has keep the original file information
- If you decide you don’t want to crop after activating the tool, hit the cancel icon
Straightening the image:
- C tool, for Crop
- In the options bar select the Angle tool (next to Straighten) and draw a line over the horizon line in your image
- You can also straighten your image by clicking outside of crop area and rotating with the cursor
- Nested with the eyedropper
- Click and drag out and Select Straighten Layer
- This will enlarge the canvas size to include all the data from the original file
Cropping to achieve the proper image size:
- Select the crop tool
- Right click on the tool and reset it
- Select Width, Height, and Resolution
- This allows you to set a specific image ratio and keep your needed resolution
Increasing Canvas Size
With the crop tool:
- Select the crop tool
- Convert your background to a layer by clicking the lock icon in layers
- Drag the marque tool all the way out and release
- Then you can drag further
- The checkerboard is a transparent layer in Photoshop
OR With the Image Menu:
Image menu > Canvas Size
You can add canvas size by adding width or height, or with a relative amount
If you want to fill the canvas with a background color select Layer menu > New Fill Layer > Solid Color
To change the layer arrangement so it fills the background, reposition the Color Fill Layer so it’s underneath the original layer in the layers panel
- B key or the tool bar
- Tool preset picker lets you change the size, hardness, brush tips
- To increase brush size ] to decrease brush size [
Using the Marquee and Lasso tools:
- Click and drag in an area, shift key constrains the shape to a square
- To deselect, click anywhere outside of the marching ants
- If you hold shift key you can add to your marquee select
Quick Select Tool:
You can use the Quick Selection tool to quickly “paint” a selection using an adjustable round brush tip. As you drag, the selection expands outward and automatically finds and follows defined edges in the image.
1. Select the Quick Selection tool . (If the tool isn’t visible, hold down the Magic Wand tool .)
2. In the options bar, click one of the selection options: New, Add To, or Subtract From.
New is the default option if nothing is selected. After making the initial selection, the option changes automatically to Add To.
3. To change the brush tip size, click the Brush pop-up menu in the options bar, and type in a pixel size or drag the slider. Use the Size pop‑up menu options to make the brush tip size sensitive to pen pressure or a stylus wheel.
Note: When creating a selection, press the right bracket ] to increase the Quick Selection tool brush tip size; press the left bracket [ to decrease the brush tip size.
4. Choose Quick Selection options:
- Sample All Layers: Creates a selection based on all layers instead of just the currently selected layer.
- Auto-Enhance: Reduces roughness and blockiness in the selection boundary. Auto-Enhance automatically flows the selection further toward image edges and applies some of the edge refinement you can apply manually in the Refine Edge dialog with the Contrast and Radius options.
5. Paint inside the part of the image you want to select.
- The selection grows as you paint. If updating is slow, continue to drag to allow time to complete work on the selection. As you paint near the edges of a shape, the selection area extends to follow the contours of the shape edge.
- Note: If you stop dragging and then click or drag in a nearby area, the selection will grow to include the new area.
• To subtract from a selection, click the Subtract From option in the options bar, then drag over the existing selection.
• To temporarily switch between add and subtract modes, hold down the Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) key.
• To change the tool cursor, choose Edit > Preferences > Cursors > Painting Cursors (Windows) or Photoshop > Preferences > Cursors > Painting Cursors (Mac OS). Normal Brush Tip displays the standard Quick Selection cursor with a plus or minus sign to show the selection mode.
6. (Optional) Click Refine Edge to further adjust the selection boundary.
Magnetic Lasso tool:
When you use the Magnetic Lasso tool, the border snaps to the edges of defined areas in the image. The Magnetic Lasso tool is not available for 32‑bits-per-channel images.
1. Click in the image to set the first fastening point. Fastening points anchor the selection border in place.
2. Release the mouse button or keep it pressed, and then move the pointer along the edge you want to trace.
3. The most recent segment of the selection border remains active. As you move the pointer, the active segment snaps to the strongest edge in the image, based on the detection width set in the options bar. Periodically, the Magnetic Lasso tool adds fastening points to the selection border to anchor previous segments.
4. If the border doesn’t snap to the desired edge, click once to add a fastening point manually. Continue to trace the edge, and add fastening points as needed.
Fastening points anchor selection border to edges
5. To switch temporarily to the other lasso tools, do one of the following:
• To activate the Lasso tool, hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS), and drag while pressing the mouse button.
• To activate the Polygonal Lasso tool, hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS), and click.
6. To erase recently drawn segments and fastening points, press the Delete key until you’ve erased the fastening points for the desired segment.
7. Close the selection border:
• To close the border with a magnetic segment, double-click, or press Enter or Return. (To manually close the border, drag over the starting point and click.)
• To close the border with a straight segment, hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS), and double-click. 8. (Optional) Click Refine Edge to further adjust the selection boundary.
Convert a selection into a new layer:
1. Make a selection.
2. Do one of the following:
• Choose Layer > New > Layer Via Copy to copy the selection into a new layer.
• Choose Layer > New > Layer Via Cut to cut the selection and paste it into a new layer.
• Right click and Select New Layer Via Copy
Layer menu > New Adjustment Layer
- Allows you to make nondestructive changes to your images
Spot Healing Brush Tool:
- J key
- Content aware, Photoshop automatically samples pixels
Healing Brush Tool:
- When you want more control
- Use the opt to select the source of your paint
Clone Stamp tool:
- S key
- Unlike the Healing Brush it makes an exact duplicate
- To set the sample point hold down the option key
- Your source point stays in alignment so you can get variety
1. Select the Type Tool and begin to type in your composition.
2. This will automatically make a new text layer.
1. Select the Horizontal Type tool or the Vertical Type tool.
2. Select the type layer in the Layers panel, or click in the text flow to automatically select a type layer.
3. Position the insertion point in the text, and do one of the following:
• Click to set the insertion point.
• Select one or more characters you want to edit.
4. Enter text as desired.
5. In the options bar, do one of the following:
• Click the Commit button (checkmark button) to apply your changes to the type layer.
• Click the Cancel button (cancel icon) or press ESC.